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Replying ;Discussion: Operating System Interfaces Reflect in ePortfolio

    Post 1-Anita


    My main goals as the CEO of our technology company are to develop relationships that motivate and lead people. Continue learning in a collaborative culture and have a well-understood strategy with a compelling vision. Finally, have a dynamic execution of our strategy with sustainable performance (Sundheim, 2020).  With these goals in mind, I have determined our future focus should start with radical changes to the peripheral component interconnect (PCI) utilizing the peripheral component interconnect express (PCIe) as the standard to surpass.

    PCI was, from 1993 to 2007, the common standard information transport in computers. It was utilized as the standard transport for extension cards such as network or sound cards in computers. It can be 32 or 64 bits wide with speeds between 33 to 66 MHz. Installation of remote cards, sound cards or Ethernet are handled by PCI slots. PCI openings allow inclusion of expansion cards to a motherboard (Geeks, 2022). In the 2020’s, PCI is common for desktops because of the low cost to produce, their backward compatibility and where specialized expansion cards never transitioned to PCIe like industrial PCs (Wiki, 2022). 

    PCIe is the standard interface to connect high-speed components such as video cards, graphic cards, Solid-state drive, or WI-FI cards. PCIe 1.0a was introduced in 2003 by PCI-SIG after Arapaho Work Group collaborated with Intel engineers and industry partners to create the standard. PCIe 4.0 was utilized by AMD Ryzen 3000-series CPUs in 2019. PCIe 6.0 is in development with target release in 2021 (Geeks, 2022).

    Some of the differences to focus on between PCI and PCIe are:

    1. PCI is a parallel bus while PCIe is a serial bus
    2. PCI works slower while PCIe works faster
    3. PCI provides slower data rates while PCIe provides faster data rates
    4. PCI slot speed up to 133MB/s while PCIe slot speed up to 16 GB/s
    5. PCI has less features while PCIe has more features (Geeks, 2020).

    Post 2

    Ash Mohanty ‘s post


    An interface is defined as a point where different things meet and interact (Study material,2022). In the operating system, the complex task is implemented via subcomponents, and every subcomponent has an interface in between; the interface standardizes the communication between each separated component.CPU is the microprocessor, and a set of instructions the CPU exposes to the operating system are the critical interfaces.
    The basic instructions exposed by the microprocessor are called an instruction set architecture (ISA).
    ISA is a set of directives that tell the microprocessor a calculation to perform or a data transfer to execute. The data transfer happens by moving a byte of data from the main memory into an internal microprocessor location called a register. (Study material,2022). The industry has moved from Complex instruction set architecture (CISC) to the more flexible and basic set of instructions called reduced instruction set architecture ( RISC) which is simple in composition. It runs in single instruction but in a parallel manner. When CISC instruction is split into RISC, the CPU prioritizes other tasks while waiting for the memory management unit to execute the fetch of data from the main memory.

    The CISC approach attempts to minimize the number of instructions per program, sacrificing the number of cycles per instruction. RISC does the opposite, reducing the cycles per instruction at the cost of the number of instructions per program. In addition, RISC emphasizes software; even though the code size is more significant, it requires lesser hardware space, and a pipeline of tasks is possible. However, not many companies developed software to support RISC by taking a chance and competing with Intel’s CISC (Risc,2022).

    The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a hardware standard that ensures devices attaching to the input/output bus communicate in a standardized manner (Study material,2022). It is a critical I/O component to have the CPU interact with peripheral devices such as a mouse, keyboard, USB, etc. In addition, it supports Plug and Play. Each PCI device (i.e., network card, sound card, RAID card, etc.) is attached to the same bus, which communicates with the CPU (Mishra,2016).  
    Though the PCI bus has many advantages, it has bandwidth limitations, and all the devices share the available bandwidth on a single PCI bus.PCI buses can not be easily scaled up. The speed is also very slow as PCI, and the operating system goes via interrupt handling (Wireless world,2012).
    Once data has been successfully transferred across the PCI bus, the receiving device signals a hardware interrupt to let the microprocessor know the data is ready. The microprocessor, in turn, calls an interrupt service routine (ISR) that determines what happens to the data next(Study material,2022).

    POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) is a set of standard operating system interfaces based on the Unix operating system.POSIX is needed to make applications more portable across diverse systems. Earlier, for computing, programmers had to rewrite their applications for each computer model and OS. With POXIS, applications could be made more portable, saving enormous amounts of development time. Examples are the ‘cp’ command in Linux and open() and close() system calls in C.
    It makes system development more efficient, faster and standardized (Sheldon,2022).

    Given the three options:
    1. Introducing the next generation of the instruction set architecture (ISA) will revolutionize the instruction set. It will require less hardware space and create a pipeline of tasks and optimal use of memory.
    2. Motherboard engineering will change the PCI to increase the speed and remove compatibility issues. These were some of the existing drawbacks of PCI. 
    3. Making POSIX for system calls more compliant will help faster & efficient software development

    As the CEO, I will go with option one:- Introduce the next generation of the instruction set architecture (ISA)

    This will make the application run on the CPU faster. Every application code will be converted into instructions. 
    The application will run in single instruction but in a parallel manner. As a result, the CPU can prioritize other tasks while waiting for the memory management unit to execute the fetch of data from the main memory. It will also allow developers to utilize more space in the microprocessor. As a result, overall speed and efficiency will be increased. In addition, because of the reduced instruction set, less chip space will be required, reducing the hardware cost.

    PCI is good for marketing, and POXIS is good for software development, but we are a company whose primary products are microprocessors and operating systems. If the speed is not there in the microprocessor, everything else will be secondary. Also, I look at the reduction of hardware costs. So, the best possible way will be to create a new ISA and new OS and then improve the performance of external interfaces depending upon the processor.



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