QUESTION 1 1.The Internet protocol suite supports a connectionless transport protocol called __________. A. Ports B. RTP C. Transmission Control Protocol D. User Datagram Protocol QUESTION 2 1.When a process on machine 1 calls a procedure on machine 2, the calling process on 1 is suspended and execution of the called procedure takes place on 2. Information can be transported from the caller to the callee in the parameters and can come back in the procedure result. No message passing is visible to the application programmer. What is this technique called? A. Calling Technique B. Message Passing Technique C. Remote Procedure Call D. Virtual Procedure Call QUESTION 3 1.Once the media information reaches the receiver, it must be played out at the right time. In general, this will not be the time at which the RTP packet arrived at the receiver because packets will take slightly different amounts of time to transit the network. Even if the packets are injected with exactly the right intervals between them at the sender, they will reach the receiver with different relative times. What is this variation in delay called? A. RTP Variation B. Receiver and Sender Delay C. Jitter D. QoS QUESTION 4 1.When the sender gets an acknowledgement, it increases the congestion window by one and immediately sends two packets into the network. (One packet is the increase by one; the other packet is a replacement for the packet that has been acknowledged and left the network. At all times, the number of unacknowledged packets is given by the congestion window.) However, these two packets will not necessarily arrive at the receiver as closely spaced as when they were sent. What is this protocol called? A. Burst Acknowledge B. Slow Start C. Traffic Control D. Flow Control QUESTION 5 1.Because packets can take different paths through the network, they can arrive out of order. This will trigger duplicate acknowledgements even though no packets have been lost. However, this is uncommon in the Internet much of the time. When there is reordering across multiple paths, the received packets are usually not reordered too much. Thus, TCP somewhat arbitrarily assumes that three duplicate acknowledgements imply that a packet has been lost. The identity of the lost packet can be inferred from the acknowledgement number as well. It is the very next packet in sequence. This packet can then be retransmitted right away, before the retransmission timeout fires. What is this mechanism called? A. Burst acknowledge B. Fast retransmission C. Quick retransmission D. Multiple acknowledge QUESTION 6 1. At every clock tick, the counter in the head entry is decremented. When it hits zero, its event is processed and the next item on the list becomes the head. Its counter does not have to be changed. This way, inserting and deleting timers are expensive operations, with execution times proportional to the length of the list. A much more efficient approach can be used if the maximum timer interval is bounded and known in advance. To implement this, an array is used. What is this array called? A. Ring array B. Linear array C. Recursive wheel D. Timing wheel QUESTION 7 1.The main assumption in the Internet that DTNs seek to relax is that an end to end path between a source and a destination exists for the entire duration of a communication session. When this is not the case, the normal Internet protocols fail. DTNs get around the lack of end-to-end connectivity with an architecture that is based on message switching. What is this message called? A. End to end message B. DTN message C. Bundle D. Contact QUESTION 8 1.Write steps in making a remote procedure call. QUESTION 9 1.What is a purpose of Slow-Start? QUESTION 10 Write how to manage windows in the TCP sliding window protocol.
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