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Policy-makingin the Federal SystemThe U.S. governments expa

    Policy-makingin the Federal SystemThe U.S. government’s expansive rolein public policy is caught in a swirl of conflicting cross-currents. On the onehand, popular expectations about government’s responsibility to solve problemsoften exceed the capacity of state and local authorities to respondeffectively. On the other hand, policies developed at the national level maynot sufficiently reflect the great diversity of interests across the U.S. to beeffective at the local level. Moreover, the search for effective policy isfurther complicated by theoretical debates about the constitutional frameworkof federalism, e.g., what limits on national power can be derived from theTenth Amendment?   A policy area in the middle of these cross-currents is elementary and secondaryeducation – a subject traditionally under local control, with some oversight bythe states. However, during the last four decades – especially since 2001 – thenational government’s role in education has grown significantly as a result ofinitiatives by Republican and Democratic administrations. Use the assignedresources to inform yourself about this role and the arguments of itssupporters and critics.   Before writing your initial post, review the assigned resources. To easilyaccess the resources from the Ashford University Library, please see the tablelocated in the Course Materials section.In your initial post of at least 200-250 words, briefly summarize the nationalgovernment’s education policies. Explain the main pros and cons in the debateabout these policies. Evaluate them from two perspectives: The policies’ effectiveness in improving the quality ofU.S. elementary and secondary education. (Justify your assessment byclearly explaining your definition of ‘effectiveness’ and how itshould be measured or determined.)Their consistency with the constitutional framework offederalism. (Justify your assessment by clearly explaining yourinterpretation of American federalism’s constitutional framework and whyfederal education policies are or are not consistent with it.)MeetYour RepThe Constitution states, ‘TheHouse of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Yearby the People of the several States…’ (Art. I, Sec. 2). Contrast thiswith the original constitutional language for the other house of Congress,’The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators fromeach State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six Years…’ (Art. I,Sec. 3). The phrase ‘chosen by the Legislature’ was changed to’elected by the people’ by the 17th Amendment, but not until 1912. Inother words, from the beginning the House of Representatives was intended to beexactly what its name suggests –representative of the people. (Note that in2010 the Tea Party, and some Republican politicians, called for repeal of the17th Amendment, eliminating the popular vote for Senators. While mostRepublican politicians have backed away from that view, many Tea Party chapterscontinue to demand its repeal.)   Textbook models suggest how members of the House of Representatives may fulfilltheir constitutional duty to ‘represent’ – the delegate model, thetrustee model, the oversight model, and the service model. A weakness of thesemodels is that they ignore the pervasive influence of interest groups,partisanship, and political money (campaign contributions) on the behavior ofcongressional reps. To what extent do these factors interfere with effectiverepresentation? Before writing your initial post, review the assigned resources. To easilyaccess the resources from the Ashford University Library, please see the tablelocated in the Course Materials section.After researching your representative by using the assigned resources, identifyone important issue directly related to your rep’s committee or subcommitteework in Congress. Summarize your representative’s position on this focus issueas described on his or her website or illustrated by legislation sponsored byyour rep.  Be concrete and specific.  Avoid vague generalities like ‘myrepresentative is for jobs’ or ‘my Congressman is for nationalsecurity.’With respect to this focus issue, evaluate your representative’s performance asa representative of the people in your legislative district. Justify yourassessment from two perspectives:How well does your rep’s position on that issue reflectyour district’s likely preferences or broad interests on the issue?Support your inferences about the district with fact-based evidence – notjust your opinion about the district or your rep’s position on the focusissue. Demonstrate how your rep does or does not reflect his or herconstituency on this issue. Consider your rep’s committee memberships andseniority. Discuss fact-based evidence about how interest groups,political party loyalty, or campaign money may influence yourrepresentative. Can these influences weaken his or her effectiveness as atrue ‘representative’ of the district? Consider whether thedistrict is considered a “safe” seat or a competitive district. Put onyour critical thinking cap to respond to this aspect of the question. jUST NEED 1 OR 2 PARAGRAPHS FOR BOTH. PLEASE ANSWER BOTH SEPARATELY!!!!!!!!

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