Movement is controlled by the brain. Which regions exert the greatest amounts of control?The cerebral cortex, which is concerned with learned movements. The frontal lobe contains the supplementary motor area which controls voluntary movements.
Re:Module 4 DQ 2
Movement is controlled by the brain. Which regions exert the greatest amounts of control?
As mentioned by Donnelly (2014), the cerebellum coordinates movement at an unconscious level. The cerebral cortex, which is concerned with learned movements. The frontal lobe contains the supplementary motor area which controls voluntary movements. The subthalamus nucleus is involved with the control of movement (p. 195-199).
What is the most significant effect of degenerative disorders on movement and behavior?
One degenerative disorder, Parkinson’s disease, has a very high commonality with those who acquire it. This most common issue is with severe instability of the posture. This issue can lead to falls early in the diagnosis and treatment (Dickson, 2012). Giraldo, et al. (2012) state that Alzheimer’s disease contains a syndrome of early-onset dementia. Along with the dementia comes a loss of function, which could lead to an impaired state; the subsequent result is neurodegeneration.
Why is this significant?
It is significant because these diseases actually change people. Parkinson’s is not only a physically debilitative disease, but it also impairs the mind. Alzheimer’s disease is not only mentally debilitative, but also impairs movement. Unfortunately, I have seen both diseases in action and to those around the victim, it is incredibly devastating. A very short time ago, my wife lost her grandfather to Parkinson’s. The physical disabilities were understandable, but the toll taken on his mind was more than horrific. My father-in-law said, when his dad died, that he had considered his dad to be gone three years before his passing. Watching my family attempt to cope with all of that was heartbreaking.
Dickson, D. W. (2012). Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism: neuropathology. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 2(8), a009258.
Donnelly, L. (2014). The brain: functional disorders. Neurosurgical Anaesthesia, 15(4), 195-200.
Giraldo, M., Lopera, F., Siniard, A. L., Corneveaux, J. J., Schrauwen, I., Carvajal, J., … & Caselli, R. J. (2013). Variants in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 are associated with both behavioral variant frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of aging, 34(8), 2077-e11.
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Re:Module 4 DQ 1
External stimuli begin a neuronal process from transduction to sensation to perception, which results in a response. Will a change in transduction, sensation, or perception create the greatest change in the response? Why is this so?
There are four major components involved in the coding process of neuron signals that include the type, stimulus location within the receptive field, duration of signal and intensity (GCU, 2013). Additionally, receptors are stimulus specific as well as processing regions including somatosensory, visual and auditory regions that are dedicated to information that is passed through the thalamus “clearing house” for sensory and motor signals.
Sensory signals convert to electrical signals in the depolarization when neuron membranes open gates of ion channels causing the membrane potential to meet threshold. These gradient receptor potentials depend upon the strength of stimulus. Author Ma (2010) discusses somatic sensory system and the encoding of inputs from various modalities such as pain, temperature, itch and touch. The scientists states that certain lines are labeled for transmitting messages from the skin to the brain. Moreover, the author points to crosstalk that occurs between the circuitry lines creating population coding of somatic sensations that can be antagonistic ultimately impacting response.
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