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In the last decadeof the nineteenth century, budgeting was d

    In the last decadeof the nineteenth century, budgeting was defined as ‘a valuation ofreceipts and expenditures or a public balance sheet, and as a legislative actestablishing and authorizing certain kinds and amounts of expenditures andtaxation'(Schiesl, 1977: 89). Governmental entities in the United Statesover the past 30 years, have used a wide variety of budget approaches. TheNational Advisory Council on State and Local Budgeting provides additionalguidelines (Budgetary Approaches, 2003).The budgets listed in our text are asfollows, The Line Item Budget, The Program Budget The Performance Budget Theplanning, Programming Budgeting System, or Zero Based Budgeting The HybridBudget. Compare and contrast thefundamentals.  The five forms ofbudgets are concerned with how to plan for expenditures using the mosteffective way. Line item budget is concerned with allocation of resources thedevelopment of the budget and the overall control, whereas program budgetoffers the guideline to which programs are implemented which is important inexecuting the daily activities in an organization. Performance budget workstogether with program budget where input is determined by the same measure ofoutput for each individual unit in an organization. Hybrid budget is used inany prevailing condition despite the frequently adjusting factors inperformance. Zero based budget reverses the traditional working process of thetraditional budget Zero budget contrast the traditional budgeting by requiringevery line budget to be approved rather than the changes only .Zero basedbudgeting is more difficult to implement as it requires the entire line budgetbe approved rather than the changes that arise in the process ofimplementation. Managing this kind of budget requires the mangers of each unitto preview the input and output so as to prepare a new line budget. The linebudget is prevalent in law enforcement community as it is executed as per thedepartment requirement or the cost.Borrowing is considered as a source of funding especiallywhen there are no other options of recovering the initial set budgetexpenditure. The set back is that one has to pay the money with interest thatmay make it difficult to achieve the goals because of increased cost ofproduction resulting in a zero budget change. Seeking sources from shareholderswho become part owners is a way of preventing liquidation. The shareholdersbecome liability as they require dividends that may be an extra burden to theorganization References:PDF] BudgetaryApproaches – Washoe County School District. (2003). Retrieved May 15,2014, from www.washoe.k12.nv.us/…/budget/Attachment20A20-20Budgetary20Approa..Tyler , C.,& Willand , J. (1997). Public Budgeting in America.Retrieved May 15, 2014, fromwww.ipspr.sc.edu/publication/budgeting_in_america.htm -Instructor wrote: One follow up question. Do you think wherethese donations are allocated to should be controlled? Should be forbeneficiaries? Is it just for medical expenses or should they go to the agency?What are your thoughts or ideas in regards to this?  The donationsallocation should be controlled. The proposals have clearly indicated in theproposal document the need for the donation and therefore controlling thedonation allocation will be good to oversee that the plan is fulfilledaccording to the purpose of the donation. The donors donate the fund or theiritem in reference to the need of the needy and therefore to ensure that thefund is allocated appropriately there should be some policies and controlmeasures (McWay, 2014). Thiswill reduce the cases of individuals being unethical by enriching themselves bythe use of the donations. Controlling the donations allocation will help thedonors to evaluate the results of their funds and be motivated for moredonations.Controlling the donations will be of great benefits tothe beneficiaries since the beneficiaries might be in a position to directlyget the benefits of the programs that is being taken. This will therefore beencouraged so as to benefit more and more groups of individuals than benefitinga single person or just few people who might not actually need the plan.The donations should not only stand for the medicalexpenses but also should include more expenses. For a better allocation of thedonated funds the fund should be directed to an agency that should be countedanswerable for the allocation of fund(Moseley, 2009). The fund allocation in this case should be encouragedto be directed to the agency for a better accountability of the fund allocationand for the fund control.  The agency stands a better position to controlthe donation allocation while following all the set policies and control forthe donations. Therefore, I support the control of the donation allocation andthe agency monitory of the donations.ReferencesMcWay, D. C. (2014). Today’shealth information management: An integrated approach. Clifton Park, NY:Delmar/Cengage Learning.Moseley, G. B. (2009). Managing health care business strategy.Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.Each of the five you mention are critical foropportunities.With that said, what or where do you find the best chance for success?The community is critical on departments, police or not, on spending money.

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