if you can not get done by sunday am do not bidBackground: Scientific inquiry in biology starts byobserving the living species around us. Science is a way of knowing. It is notthe only way, but it is a good way. Other ways of knowing include mathematics,logic, history, philosophy, and theology.What separates science from the other methods of seekingtruth is that it is testable (i.e. one can devise experiments to test thevalidity of an idea); it is falsifiable (i.e. an experiment can reveal if anidea is false); and, it involves natural causality (i.e. the method involvesand depends upon the natural laws of the universe which cause things to happenin a predictable and repeatable manner.)Observation: Scientific inquiry begins when somethinginteresting gets your attention.Question: Following an observation, a question arises inyour mind. It may be something like: ‘I wonder what…? Or ‘I wonderhow …? Or, ‘I wonder why…?Assignment details:In this assignment, we will take a look at science and thescientific method. Then, you will design a (pretend) scientific study to answera specific question based upon an observation.First, choose ONE of the following Observations /Questions:Option A:Observation: During the winter, you spread salt daily onyour driveway to melt the snow. In the springtime, when the lawn begins togrow, you notice that there is no grass growing for about 3 inches from thedriveway. Furthermore, the grass seems to be growing more slowly up to about 1foot from the driveway.Question: Might grass growth be inhibited by salt?Option B:Observation: Your neighbor added a farmer’s porch to hishouse and painted the ceiling of it blue. When you asked him why, he told youhe had read that the sky blue ceiling would fool wasps into thinking it was thesky and they would not build any nests under the eaves of the porch or alongthe ceiling.Question: Would a blue ceiling really deter wasps frombuilding nests on the porch?Option C:Observation: When taking a hike, you notice that aruby-throated hummingbird seems interested in your red hat. It hovers over thehat and then darts away.Question: Do ruby-throated hummingbirds prefer some colorsmore than others when visiting flowers?After choosing ONE of the above options (observation andquestion), you will do some library /Internet research about the subject. Onceyou have become familiar with the topic, propose a testable hypothesis toanswer the question; and, follow the rest of scientific method to determine ifyour hypothesis is correct by designing a controlled experiment.You will not actually do the experiment or collect results.Rather you will propose a workable controlled experiment and make up what wouldseem to be reasonable results. You will then discuss those imagined results anddraw a conclusion (based upon your imagined results) about whether or not toaccept your hypothesis.Complete the steps of the scientific method for your choiceof observation and question using the directions below. Use these headings inyour paper, please.Introduction:The Introduction is an investigation of what is currentlyknown about the question being asked. Before one proposes a hypothesis ordashes off to the lab to do an experiment, a thorough search is made in theexisting literature about the specific question and about topics related to thequestion. Once one is familiar with what is known about the question underconsideration, one is in a position to propose a reasonable hypothesis to testthe question.Hypothesis:This is an educated guess, or ‘best’ guess, aboutwhat might be the explanation for the question asked. A hypothesis should be aone sentence statement (not a question) that can be tested in an experiment.The ability to test a hypothesis implies that it has a natural, repeatablecause.Prediction:What do you predict as an outcome for the controlledexperiment (i.e. results) if the hypothesis is true? This should be in the formof an ‘If…….., then……….’ statement.Controlled Experimental Method:The hypothesis is tested in a controlled experiment. Acontrolled experiment compares a ‘Control’ (i.e. the normal,unmodified, or unrestricted, or uninhibited set-up, based on the observation)to one or several ‘Experimental’ set-ups. The conditions in theexperimental set-ups are identical to the Control in every way, e.g.temperature, composition, shape, kind, etc., except for the one Experimentalvariable that is being tested. The results obtained from the Experimentalset-ups will be compared to each other and to those obtained from the Control.If done correctly, any differences in the results may be attributed to theExperimental variable under consideration.When designing an experiment, it is important to usemultiples, (i.e. replicates), for each set-up, to avoid drawing the wrongconclusion. If the experiment only has one control and only one experimentalset up with just one test subject in each, there is always the chance that asingle living organism (test subject) could get sick or even die for reasonsnot caused by the experimental variable. And, because living organisms aregenetically different, the results from just one test subject in a given set upmay not be typical for the species as a whole. This could result in errors wheninterpreting the results. This kind of problem is avoided by using multiplecontrols and multiple experimental set-ups with multiple test subjects.Be sure to provide sufficient details in your method sectionso that someone could reproduce your experiment.The experimental method section should also state clearlyhow data (numbers) will be collected during the experiment which will be usedto compare results in each test set up.Results:Since this is a ‘thought experiment,’ you willmake up results according to what you think might happen if you actually didthe experiment.Results should include detailed raw data (numbers) ratherthan just a summary of the results. For example, if data are collected daily forfive weeks, results should include the actual data from each day, and not justa summary of what happened at the end of the five weeks. Recorded resultsshould match the experimental method.Conclusion:In this section, state clearly whether you reject or acceptthe hypothesis based on the (pretend) results. Discuss what this means in termsof the hypothesis, such as the need for additional experiments, or thepractical uses or implications of the results.Provide references in APA format. This includes a referencelist and in-text citations for references used in the Introduction section.Give your paper a title and number and identify each sectionas specified above. Although the hypothesis and prediction will be one sentenceanswers, the other sections will need to be paragraphs to adequately explainyour experiment.
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