50 geology questions

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MULTIPLE CHOICE:

1. The energy that causes plates to move is derived from

a. tidal forces

b. solar energy

c. Earth’s internal heat

d. gravitational energy

e. magnetic energy.

2. The man who pioneered the continental drift hypothesis was:

a. J. Tuzo Wilson

b. Harry Hess

c. D.H. Matthews

d. Fred Vine

e. Alfred Wegener

3. Magnetic reversals

a. provide evidence for sea-floor spreading

b. revealed that polar wandering may have occurred

c. were discovered by the Deep Sea Drilling Project

d. confirmed the existence of subduction zones

e. cause the movements of plates

4. Pangaea is

a. the Alaskan earthquake of 1964

b. a portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

c. a German word for “plate tectonics.” e. a name of a fossil.

d. the name of a Paleozoic super-continent.

5. The lithosphere is

a. a cold, brittle layer above the asthenosphere

b. the name given to the molten outer core.

c. a source of magma at divergent boundaries.

d. none of these

6. Lithospheric plates (including crust) are about:

a. 1 km thick

b. 10 km thick

c. 100 km thick

d. 1000 km thick

e. 10,000 km thick.

7. Transform boundaries are zones where plates

a. slide past each other

c. move together, causing one to go beneath the other

b. move apart, leaving a gap

d. cause sea-floor spreading

e. none of these

8. Volcanic island arcs are associated with

a. divergent boundaries

b. convergent (oceanic-oceanic) boundaries

c. convergent (continental-continental) boundaries

d. convergent (oceanic-continental) boundaries.

e. transform fault boundaries

9. New oceanic crust forms at

a. divergent plate boundaries

b. convergent plate boundaries

c. transform fault boundaries

d. all of these

e. none of these

10. Oceanic crust is recycled along

a. divergent plate boundaries

b. convergent plate boundaries

c. transform fault boundaries

d. all of these

e. none of these

11. Plates slide past one another at

a. divergent plate boundaries

b. convergent plate boundaries

c. transform fault boundaries

d. all of these

e. none of these

12. Plates move apart leaving a gap at

a. divergent plate boundaries

b. convergent plate boundaries

c. transform fault boundaries

d. all of these

e. none of these

13. Plates move towards each other along

a. divergent plate boundaries

b. convergent plate boundaries

c. transform fault boundaries

d. all of these

e. none of these

14. Oceanic crust is neither created nor recycled along this type of boundary.

a. divergent plate boundaries

b. convergent plate boundaries

c. transform fault boundaries

d. all of these

e. none of these

15. The formation of the Hawaiian Islands is associated with

a. divergent boundaries

b. transform fault boundaries

c. both a. and b.

d. convergent boundaries

e. no plate boundary of any kind

16. Subduction zones are associated with

a. divergent plate boundaries

b. transform fault boundaries

c. convergent plate boundaries.

d. all of these

e. none of these

17. Divergent boundaries are zones where plates

a. move together

b. move together then apart.

c. move apart

d. move obliquely to each other

e. slide past each other

18. Hot spots are believed to originate

a. when rock is subducted mantle.

b. during magnetic reversals

c. by chemical reactions in the asthenosphere.

d. because of concentrations of radioactive material in the upper

e. as columns of hot material rising through the deep mantle.

19. Deep-ocean trenches are associated with

a. Rifting

b. transform fault offsets

c. sub-oceanic erosion

d. submarine extension.

e. subduction zones

20. The idea that continents are less dense and “float” on a denser mantle is the principle of:

a. Superposition

b. paleomagnetism

c. isostasy

d. none of these

21. The true margin of a continent is

a. the shoreline

b. the edge of the ocean floor

c. the outer edge of the continental shelf

d. the mid-ocean ridge.

22. The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific plate is

a. diving under the North American plate

b. separating from the North American plate

c. diving under Japan.

d. being thrust over the North American plate.

e. migrating over a hot spot.

23. Sea-floor spreading goes through various stages. Which of the sequences below correctly places these locations in order so that the initial stage is depicted first and followed by more advanced stages of development?

a. Red Sea, Atlantic Ocean, African Rift Valley

b. Atlantic Ocean, African Rift Valley, Red Sea

c. African Rift Valley, Red Sea, Atlantic Ocean

d. Red Sea, African Rift Valley, Atlantic Ocean

e. Atlantic Ocean, Red Sea, African Rift Valley

24. What is the name of the mountain chain that runs along the western margin of North America?

a. the Appalachians

b. the Andes

c. the North American Cordillera

d. the Himalayas

25. What is the name of the mountain chain that runs along the eastern margin of North America?

a. the Appalachians

b. the Andes

c. the North American Cordillera

d. the Himalayas

26. The Cascades of western Oregon and Washington are an example of

a. fault-block mountains

b. folded mountains

c. up-warped mountains

d. volcanic mountains

TRUE/ FALSE

27. The oldest rocks in the ocean are near the mid-ocean ridges.TF

28. Continental crust is less dense than oceanic crust. TF

29. The continents are younger than the ocean basins. TF

30. Since oceanic crust is continually being produced, the size of Earth is increasing. TF

31. Iceland is located upon the East Pacific Ridge. TF

32. The island of Hawaii experiences volcanism because it is located on a hot spot. TF

33. Periodically, the Earth’s magnetic field reverses, that is, the north and south magnetic poles switch polarity. TF

34. Alfred Wegner used several lines of evidence to support his Continental Drift Hypothesis including glaciation, continental fit, fossils, etc. TF

35. A major criticism of the continental drift hypothesis was the apparent lack of a driving mechanism for the motion of the continents. TF

Identify the type of plate boundary that occurs (or produced the named feature) at each of the following locations using the following options (which may be used more than once).

a. divergent boundaries

b. convergent (continental-continental) boundaries

c. transform fault boundaries

d. convergent (oceanic-oceanic) boundaries

e. convergent (oceanic-continental) boundaries.

36. Appalachian Mountains ____

37. Mount St. Helens and the Cascade Mountains ____

38. The east African rift valleys ____

39. The Ural mountains ____

40. The Andes mountains ____

41. San Andreas fault ____

42. The European Alps ____

43. The Aleutian Islands ____

44. Himalayan Mountains ____

45. Iceland ____

46.At what type of plate boundary (divergent, convergent, or transform) will EQ’s occur at depths greater than 100 km?

Why?

47.Why are EQ’s that occur along the mid-ocean ridge typically of low magnitude (rarely exceeding M 5.0)?

48.Why is volcanism absent along transform plate margins?

49. Which tectonic plate is coastal Southern California on?

50. Hot spot volcanism occurs due to or independently of (circle one) plate tectonics.

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